Celiac

Celiac Disease

OverviewCeliac disease is an autoimmune disorder. It may affect every organ in the body. In most cases celiac disease damages or destroys the villi, which are the very component of the small intestine that enable us to absorb the nutrients we need to survive. The damage will extend to other parts of the body as … Read more

Testes

The Testes

The Testes In a man, the testes, which produce sperm and testosterone, hang well outside the pelvis, in the scrotum.The hypothalamus secretes gonadotropic-releasing hormone (GnRH). This triggers the pituitary to release luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), which both acts on the testis. LH stimulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone, which is responsible … Read more

Adrenal Glands

Adrenal Glands

The Adrenal Glands The adrenal glands also known as the suprarenal glands sit on top of the kidneys. The right adrenal gland is triangular shaped, while the left suprarenal gland is semilunar shaped. They are chiefly responsible for releasing hormones in response to stress through the synthesis of corticosteroids such as cortisol and catecholamines such … Read more

Ovaries

The Ovaries

The Ovaries The ovaries lay on the pelvic side wall in the angle between the interior and exterior iliac arteries. The ovaries contain follicles in various stages of the ovarian cycle. The ovaries are paired, oval organs, each one about the size of an almond that sits at the ends of the fallopian tubes. Female … Read more

Pancreas

The Pancreas

The Pancreas The pancreas is partially hidden behind the stomach and sits in front of the kidney and adrenal glands. The tip of the tail of the pancreas touches the spleen. The pancreas is a dual-purpose gland with both digestive and endocrine functions. The bulk of the gland consists of acinar cells, which produce enzymes … Read more

Electrolytes

Electrolytes

Electrolytes are ionized molecules found throughout the blood, tissues, and cells of the body. These molecules, which are either positive (cations) or negative (anions), conduct an electric current and help to balance pH and acid-base levels in the body. Electrolytes also facilitate the passage of fluid between and within cells through a process known as … Read more

Parathyroid Glands

Parathyroid Glands

The Parathyroid Glands The parathyroid glands are small glands in the neck that produce parathyroid hormone (PTH).The parathyroid glands are about the size of a grain of rice. There are usually four parathyroid glands, but some individuals may have six, eight, or even more parathyroid glands. They are usually located on the rear surface of the thyroid … Read more

Pineal Gland

Pineal Gland

The Pineal Gland The pineal gland is located near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two rounded thalamic bodies join. It is about the size of a grain of rice (5–8 mm) It produces the serotonin derivative melatonin; a hormone that affects the modulation of the … Read more

Hypothalamus Gland

Hypothalamus Gland

The Hypothalamus Gland The hypothalamus is part of the brain lying under the thalamus. The stalk of the pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus. The main function of the hypothalamus is homeostasis, or maintaining the body’s status quo. Factors such as blood pressure, body temperature, fluid and electrolyte balance, and body weight are held … Read more

Pituitary Gland

Pituitary Gland

The pituitary gland sits in a saddle shaped depression in the back of the skull below the hypothalamus. It is 3/8 inch or 1 cm in diameter. The pituitary gland secretes hormones that stimulate other glands to produce their own hormones. It is often called the master gland because of its wide ranging influences, but … Read more